Episode 21: How to Build the Perfect Pitch Deck?

This is one of the most requested questions I’ve received since starting Playing With Unicorns. People want to know “How do I build the perfect pitch deck to raise funds?”

Kelly Anne Tully, Head of Platform and Investor at FJ Labs, joins to share her tips. Kelly has helped many of our portfolio companies raise funds. Today, Kelly and I discuss how to create the perfect pitch deck.

 

 

Storytelling

The saying “beauty is in the eye of the beholder” doesn’t apply to pitch decks. Visually pitch decks can differ. But content-wise all good pitch deck contain the same things. So it’s important to know what to include in a deck.

Essentially a good pitch deck tells the origin story, the journey, and vision of the startup. Most founders hate storytelling, yet the art of storytelling is an important skill. You don’t have to be Dostoevsky. But you should be able to tell a cohesive and captivating story.

Investors want “a founder who is a visionary who is fantastic at execution.”

 

When to raise?

Always raise when you don’t need the money. Investors can sniff desperate founders. As a founder, you never want to be in a position where your desperation leads to terrible deals.

You want to have leverage. To do that you need traction. Traction is what separates concepts from execution.

Once you have traction, find investors that invest in your category. Investors will not fund companies that are in direct competition with one of their portfolio companies. Hence don’t spray and pray. Be methodical. Create a pipeline that helps you track what stage you’re at with all the investors.

When raising always aim for 12+ months. I recommend raising for 18 months with a buffer.

A perfect pitch deck will convince investors that you can go from zero to one.

“Winners are not the first entrants, they are last entrants who got it right. Think of Google or Facebook”

 

No(s) are normal

One important thing to remember is that getting nos are normal. Every successful startup has received more nos than yes.

You must not take rejections personally. The sooner you realize this the easier it will be to move on.

 

Must have slides

The very first slide should say who you are and what you do. Then start with a team slide to introduce your awesome crew. This immediately familiarizes the investors with the product and the people behind it.

Intro:  What do you do.

Team: Who you are and tell your story.

Problem: Contexualize the problem you’re solving.

Market opportunity: TAM should be greater than $5 bn.

Solution: Therefore, we are building X to fix Y.

Traction: Include churn, GVM, MRR, ARR.

How does it work: Have product images showing how it works

Competition: Who are they? And what’s your differentiator? Is this a blue or red market?

Business model: How do you plan to make money today v. tomorrow.

Unit economics: How much value does each unit generate for the company. LTC:CAC should always be LTV:CAC.

Growth & marketing: How do you plan to grow?

Ask: Don’t put valuation. Instead have how much you’ve raised and from who. And how are you planning onspending the money.

 

For your reference I am including the slides Kelly used during the episode.

How-to-build-the-perfect-pitch-deck

If you prefer, you can listen to the episode in the embedded podcast player.

In addition to the above Youtube video and embedded podcast player, you can also listen to the podcast on:

How FJ Labs Evaluates Startups

I covered FJ Labs’ investment strategy in the past which covers the type of companies we want to invest in. Today, I wanted to cover specifically how we evaluate startups.

We use four criteria:

  • Do we like the team?
  • Do we like the business?
  • Are the deal terms fair?
  • Is the business in line with our thesis of where the world is going?

The investment team member taking our first evaluation call fills in a standardized deal memo over the course of one hour, evaluating the business along these four criteria. He or she then adds a recommendation. Every week on Tuesday, during our two-hour investment committee meeting, we review the deal recommendations from the prior week. Jose or I then take a second call with the most compelling businesses where we dig deeper in areas of interest.

You can find our deal memo below.

After these two 1 hour calls over the course of a week or two, we decide whether to invest. We also share our thinking with the startup. Should we decide not to invest, we tell them what would need to see from them to change our mind.

1. Do we like the team?

Every venture capitalist in the world tells you: “I invest in extraordinary people.” That is extremely subjective. The issue with that underlying subjectivity is that it can lead to cognitive biases.

To try to be more objective we assessed which founder skills lead to startup success. Based on our analysis we want visionary founders who are fantastic at execution. Over the years, we noticed that good proxies for those are storytelling skills and analytical skills. Storytelling skills are key because someone who can weave a compelling story has an easier time attracting capital, can raise money at a higher valuation, builds a better team with better talent, signs extraordinary business development deals to grow the company faster, and gets a lot of free press.

Imagine you come to pitch FJ Labs and you tell us: “I did an in-depth market analysis. The market is large and attractive. The incumbents are slow moving, and my approach is differentiated and better.” It is factual and seemingly compelling, but that is not a story. A story sounds more like the following: “This is a problem I faced my entire life. I hate the current user experience. It is grating to me to the point that I am dedicating the rest of my life to solving this problem. Because I experienced it so much, I know exactly what the solution is.” That passion, and that intersection between your story and the company you are building, is very compelling. This is not a specific example, but it gives you a sense of what we are looking for.

If you only have extraordinary storytelling skills, it is not enough. Perhaps you can build a large business, but it may not be well-run or capital efficient. You might build a company like Fab.com, where you get hundreds of millions in revenues, but never get to unit economics that work, and the company does not make money. Or maybe you build a company like Theranos, where you sell a fantastic story that everyone wants to believe in but is ultimately not true.

As a result, the second thing we look for is that the founder / CEO must also be metrics-driven, analytical and know how to execute on his or her vision. They really need to understand the business they are in. They need to be able to articulate their unit economics. Even if their business is pre-launch, they need to understand their theoretical unit economics based on industry averages and landing page tests they did. However, those skills on their own are also not enough. Absent storytelling skills these founders will build small, profitable businesses, but not industry-defining ones.

We also look for demonstrated passion, but it typically comes across during our evaluation of storytelling skills. Likewise, we also look for grit and tenacity. Perhaps you experienced hardship in getting to where you are, but it need not be there. We are privileged enough in the West that many do not really face adversity. You can go to a good school, get good grades, get great jobs, and never really fail in your life. Yet we really want to get a sense for how you will react to the myriad challenges you will face along the way, especially as a first-time entrepreneur.

Our approach is to intellectually challenge the founders who pitch us. We challenge their assumptions, where they expect to be and why. We test how they react to this. If they crumble under the pressure of the questioning we have about their business, then obviously they are going to crumble against the much bigger pressures of the myriads of failures they will face as an entrepreneur. Ultimately, your response to our challenges also comes across in your storytelling and analytical skills.

In summary, we really want to back that rare breed of founders who are both visionary and fantastic at execution.

2. Do we like the business?

It is worth mentioning that for some VCs, having an amazing team is enough. Their reasoning is that extraordinary teams will figure the business out even if they are not in a compelling business to begin with or do not have a business model with attractive unit economics.

This is not true for FJ Labs. There are around new 5,000 startups every year in the US that raise $500k or more in funding. The 5-year survival rate of these startups is 7% on average and it is much lower for companies that start with no business model. By comparison, we have made money on 50% of our 150+ exits because of our discipline and liking the business plays a large role in that.

There are several criteria that make a business compelling. Is the total addressable market (TAM) large enough? If not, can you grow the market sufficiently to support a billion-dollar company in the industry? There are a lot of ancillary things that go along building an unbelievably valuable large business in a marketplace environment. Are you in a position to be the market leader? Is this scalable? Success also means you do not get disintermediated, which implies there is reasonable fragmentation on the supply and demand side. But to me, these factors all fall under the subset of: “is there an opportunity to build a billion-dollar company here?

Beyond that, there is one thing above all else that we care about as we are evaluating the business: does it have attractive unit economics? If the startup is pre-launch, the question applies to your theoretical unit economics. If the startup is post-launch, I expect to discuss actual unit economics. Note that in the interest of conciseness and brevity, I assume readers of this article know what I mean by unit economics. I will create a separate post on how FJ Labs looks at unit economics soon.

Good unit economics from our perspective is one where the startup can recoup its customer acquisition cost (CAC) on a net contribution margin basis during the first 6 months of operations. We also look for the startup to 3x its CAC in 18 months. In the best businesses we talk to, they have no idea what the long term value (LTV) to CAC ratio is (LTV:CAC) because of negative churn. Even though they lose some customers, the remaining ones keep buying more and more and the LTV:CAC may be 10:1 or even 20:1.

Note that there are some exceptions to this rule. For a super sticky SaaS business with negative churn, and essentially an endless customer lifetime, it is ok if it takes 12-18 months to recoup its CAC.

For a pre-launch business, we expect the founders to have thought through what the unit economics should be. They should know the average order value in the industry and expect to be in line with it. They should also have a strong grasp of the underlying cost of goods sold (COGS), and hence should have a good sense of their margin per order. The average recurrence in the industry should also be known.

The unknown part is the customer acquisition cost. However, you can test for it. You can create beautiful landing pages describing the concept before you even build a functional site. You then spend some money on marketing and can make reasonable assumptions on cost per click, cost per signup and potential purchases from those sign ups. You can again use averages for the industry in terms of what % of visitors to a site in this category purchase something.

Note that I also expect you to assess the density of your customer acquisition channel. Could you spend 50K a month, 100K a month, 500K a month or more, and still have attractive unit economics? If not, you have an interesting small business on your hands, but not a scalable venture backable business.

If you are post-launch, we want you to walk us through your actual unit economics. They may not meet our expectations of 3:1 18-month net contribution margin to CAC ratio yet because your CAC is too high, or your contribution margin per order or recurrence are too low. However, we can overlook these if you can walk us through why your unit economics are going to get there with scale, without needing all the stars in the universe to align.

For instance, perhaps you are in the food delivery business. Right now, you are paying your food delivery drivers $15 an hour, and they are only doing one delivery per hour. And as a result, your economics are underwater. But if you tell me, “Look, right now I am at $100k a month in GMV, or gross merchandise sales. Once I am at $300k per month in the same geographies, which will conservatively happen in the next 12 months, the drivers will be doing three deliveries an hour. The cost per delivery will come down to $5, and at that scale, the unit economics work.” That is a believable and compelling story if you can convince me you have a reasonable plan for tripling in those geographies in the next 12 months.

There are countless examples of margin improvement through scale as you get leverage over your suppliers and get better at marketing and at customer engagement. Ultimately you just need a compelling story of how you will get there with scale even if your unit economics are not there yet.

To conclude this section, while there are many things we look at when evaluating the attractiveness of a business, they all boil down to: can we build a billion-dollar business with attractive unit economics?

3. Are the deal terms fair?

In a funding round there are many terms:

  • At what valuation are we able to invest in?
  • How much is the company raising?
  • Is it preferred?
  • Is it a convertible note versus an actual equity round?
  • Do we have drag along, tag along, pro-rata and preemptive rights?

All investments we do have at least a 1x liquidation preference because we do not want to be in a position where the founders make money when the investors lose money. In other words, we would never invest in common shares. Beyond that, the term I am going to focus on is valuation. We care about valuation. This is not to say we invest at low valuations. I do not think there is such a thing as a low valuation in Internet startup investing. However, we want to invest at a fair valuation considering the traction, opportunity, and the team.

In our area of focus, marketplaces, there is a reasonable set of expectation for valuation and traction at various stages. I am going to give a few examples but note that the ranges cover the median. There are many exceptions, especially on the higher end. In other words, the standard deviation is rather high. A second time successful founder can raise at a much higher valuation. A company growing much quicker than the average can often “skip a stage” and have its Series A look like a Series B or its Series B look like a Series C. However, these are general guidelines that should be helpful for most entrepreneurs.

Beyond raising the right amount at the right stage, VCs often specialize by stage. You need to be speaking to the right VC for the right stage. There is also a built-in growth expectation that you need to go from stage to stage in around 18 months.

For the examples below, I am going to speak of marketplaces with a 10 to 20% take rate. For a pre-seed round, you are basically at launch, you have no sales or negligible sales. Most pre-seed startups these days are raising $750k-$1M at a $3-5M pre-money valuation.

At seed, you are doing $100 to $200K in GMV a month, taking 15%, that gives you 30K net revenues. You are typically in the $10 to $50k per month in net revenue range. You typically raise $2-4M at $6-12M pre.  Now from your seed round, you are at 150K a month in GMV, to your A, we expect you to go from 150 to about 650K a month with an 18-month lag. In other words, the expected level of growth at that stage is 300% a year, or 15% month to month levels of growth.

And your series A, once you reach $500k-$1M per month in GMV, you can raise $5-10 million at a $15-30 million pre money valuation. The average is around $7M at $18M pre, $25M post. And with that, we expect you to get to $2-4M per month in GMV 18 months later. You can then raise your Series B of $15-25M at $40- 80M pre. I am including our internal marketplace matrix as reference.

This has been our default internal framework for years but is limited to marketplaces with a 10-20% take rate, which used to be our bread and butter. However, now we mostly invest in B2B marketplaces, which often have 1-5% take rates. The framework is also not applicable for SaaS businesses and e-commerce businesses.

In addition, it was not clear enough whom you should raise from and what the expectation was for the proceeds of the raise. Investors and VCs typically specialize by stage and you need to be speaking to the right VC for the right stage. As result, I redid the matrix to be clearer and cover most cases.

To address expected traction at each stage, I switched from using Gross Merchandise Volume (GMV), as the metric of reference, to net revenues. This allows us to make traction comparable across different business models, even though some differences persist as most SAAS businesses have 90%+ margins, while most marketplaces have 60-70% margins and ecommerce margins vary.

While there are well defined industry averages, some VCs are not valuation sensitive because in their mind the only thing that matters is getting on the best deals that generate all the returns. Venture follows a power law as opposed to a normal Gaussian distribution. Each decade there are 2 super unicorns – startups worth more than $100B created in the US ecosystem. They account for 40% of all venture returns. Beyond that,  there are 20 decacorns (companies worth more than $10B) created every decade which account for another 40% of all venture returns. The 100 or so unicorns created every decade account for the bulk of the remaining returns.

Most VCs are playing “Powerball”. They want to be in the super unicorn lottery winners and will pay anything to get in them. They are ok losing money on most investments. FJ Labs does not operate this way. We want all the startups that we invest in to be viable which is why we care about their unit economics and the investment valuation.

It is the reason we make money on over 50% of the startups we invest in. We often invest at a $5M money pre-money valuation and exit at a $30M valuation because the company did ok but did not scale as originally expected. Had we been only unicorn hunting and been willing to overpay those startups we would lose money on investments like those.

Note that we push for “fair valuations” not just out of self-interest. We really think founders do themselves a disservice when they raise too much money at too high a price. They are then priced for perfection and if things do not go according to plan and they do not grow into their valuation, it might kill the company as few people want to go through down rounds. They are both psychologically scarring and negatively impact the cap table given the anti-dilution provisions in most rounds. Also, people who raise too much capital tend to spend it and not be as capital efficient as they can be.

Of course, there are counter examples with companies continuously raising ahead of traction successfully and making it such as Uber, but there are many more corpses along the way including our very own Beepi.

4. Is the business in line with our thesis of where the world is going?

We focus on marketplaces and have specific theses on the future of marketplaces. Right now, we are specifically focusing on:

  • Verticalizing horizontal (multi-category) platforms
  • Marketplace pick marketplaces
  • B2B marketplaces

By virtue of seeing so many deals in so many industries, combined with being students of history and trends, we have very well-defined perspectives on the future of these industries. We have specific theses on the future of food, the future of work, finance, lending, real estate, and cars amongst many others.

Most of the businesses we invest in touch upon many of these themes simultaneously. I will write a detailed blog post covering our current investment thesis soon.

Conclusion:

When we evaluate startups over the course of our two 1-hour calls, we evaluate them along the four dimensions we covered: the team, the business, the deal terms, and alignment with our thesis. We want all four criteria to be conjointly met: amazing founders, with great businesses, raising at fair terms, in line with our thesis. If you are an amazing founder, but feel the valuation is too high or the business not compelling, we will not invest. Likewise, if it is a great idea, great terms, and full-on thesis, but we feel the team is mediocre, we do not invest.

Of these four variables, we are a bit flexible on the thesis. While we are mostly marketplace investors, we also invest in startups that support marketplaces but may not be marketplaces themselves. Very exceptionally we invest in ideas that are out of scope, but we find incredibly compelling. We also back founders that have been successful for us in the past, even if their new startup is not a marketplace. This is how we ended up investing in Archer, an electric VTOL aircraft startup. We backed Brett Adcock and Adam Goldstein in their labor marketplace startup Vettery which was sold to Adecco. We were excited to back them in their new startup despite our lack of domain expertise in electric self-flying aircrafts.

Requiring that our four investment criteria be collectively met is vastly different from the way many Silicon Valley VCs decide to invest. They back great teams at any price regardless of current unit economics and expect them to figure it out. However, if you analyze the distribution of venture returns, our approach seems justified. 65% of investment rounds fail to return 1x capital and only 4% return greater than 10x capital. We currently have a 61% realized IRR on our 218 exits (including all the failures) and have made money on over half our exited investments.

Note that part of the reason we chose this approach is that in the past most unicorns and decacorns came out of Silicon Valley. I chose to live in New York for personal reasons: I love the intellectual, artistic, and social scene here. It is also much easier to travel to Nice, where my family lives, from New York than San Francisco, and the time difference with Europe is a lot more manageable. In other words, I chose New York knowing it would make me significantly less financially successful than if I lived in Silicon Valley because I expected not to see and be able to invest in the very best companies. I was comfortable with that choice because I optimize my life for happiness and fulfilment and not financial returns.

With the advent of open source, AWS and the low-code / no-code revolution, we are seeing a democratization in startup creation. Companies are being created and scaling in more geographies than ever before. We are seeing super unicorns like Shopify emerge outside of Silicon Valley (in Toronto in this case). COVID is only accelerating this trend as more companies than ever are being built in a distributed fashion.

As a result, I even expect our comparative disadvantage to disappear over time and we will be able to invest in more unicorns from an early stage, especially as our ever-improving brand in marketplaces is allowing us to invest even in the best Silicon Valley deals. To date we already invested in 25 companies that became unicorns and in another 25 companies that were already unicorns but increased their valuation by over $1 billion since we invested. Despite these improving circumstances, we will remain disciplined and continue to apply our four selection criteria.

There you have it: how we evaluate startups in on hour! Now that you understand how we decide whether to invest or not in your startup, you should improve your pitch accordingly.

Good luck!

The LG Gram 17 is the perfect laptop!

I love to travel light and love big screens and long battery life. Those things were largely incompatible until the LG Gram. It has a 17” screen with a 16:10 ratio, to see more vertical content, yet weighs only 2.98 pounds.

I had the 2020 model, but it was underpowered. It was not powerful enough to run OBS to stream Playing With Unicorns or to play Age of Empires II: Definitive Edition on my external 4K monitor. As a result, I often ended traveling with my bulkier MSI GS75 notebook, which is blazingly fast, but cooked my legs and only had a 90-minute battery life when doing anything intense. Worse I often traveled with both notebooks.

The 2021 Gram 17 now has an 11th Gen Intel Core i7 which is 25% faster than last year’s edition and the Iris Xe graphics card is almost twice as fast as last year’s integrated graphics card. I am happy to report it is now (barely) powerful enough to do everything I need and is the only notebook I travel with. My MSI notebooks have been transformed into desktops and run my home office setup.

The notebook is rated for an extraordinary 19.5 hours of battery life and I routinely get over 12 hours on it. I find the 1Tb SSD rather small but solve the issue by not synching all the files from my Dropbox. The only disappointing part is the subpar speakers. Other than that, it is the perfect notebook. On top of that it is reasonably priced at $1,796.

All that to say if you are looking for an amazingly light, yet large and powerful notebook with a seemingly infinite battery life get the 2021 LG Gram 17!

Meet FJ Labs’ New Partner: Arne Halleraker

I am excited to announce that we are promoting Arne Halleraker to partner on our team at FJ Labs.

Choosing your partners is important. When I was building my own startups, I looked for investors who trusted me and my vision for my companies, and who would have my back. People who understood the vision and could see beyond where the business is today, to what the business could become. Venture is also a long-term game, and choosing strong partners is just as essential to FJ Labs.

Arne has been part of our team since the beginning. In early 2016, we moved into the FJ Labs office, and we were very much a startup. We got a space to fit the growing SellIt team of 30, plus our initial investment team of 4 people. However, between signing the lease and moving in, SellIt was acquired by Letgo, so we moved into a space designed for 50, with 4 people. Arne joined in these early days, before the time of conference tables, plants or Nespresso machines. All we had were 4 desks, a ping pong table and a plan to prove that mine and Jose’s approach to angel investing could be institutionalized.

Since then, Arne has proven his value and commitment to FJ Labs. He has been co-leading our investment team for the past 3.5 years, overseeing our sourcing, assessment, closing and follow-up for our portfolio. He has also proven himself to be a great investor; even his first investment recommendation has proven to be one of our emerging winners from the first fund. Arne has led the charge on more than a hundred of our deals, touching all industries. As an engineer (he graduated with a Msc from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology), he has special expertise in the B2B marketplace space (e.g., logistics, construction, materials) as well as the food industry and green tech. He also has a passion for gaming startups (but of course, I still crush him in RTS games).

When Arne joined FJ Labs in 2016, we had completed a few early investments. With Arne and the team’s help we have now completed more than 460 investments across two funds, and we have validated that angel investing can be institutionalized while maintaining amazing returns. We are optimistic about the future of tech and will continue to hold our place as the leading marketplace investors. Jose and I both see Arne as an important part of that strategy, and we are excited to welcome him as a partner at FJ Labs.

5 quick facts about Arne:

  • Born and raised in Norway, he can trace his family line back more than 1000 years to the guy with the pretty hair
  • He worked with two startups during his university days at NTNU’s School of Entrepreneurship, one for nano-ceramic powders (yeah, had to look that up) and a golf swing simulator
  • Together with Rochelle, he has the cutest dog in the world (8 lbs of fluff), answers to Dumpling
  • A fan of the outdoors, he has snowmobiled in Svalbard, scuba-dived in Thailand, kite-surfed in Turks and Caicos and gone monkey-watching in the forests of Uganda
  • Big nerd. I mean, huge. He was playing World of Warcraft before it was cool. Yeah, I know, still not cool. 

Episode 20: So you want to launch a SPAC ?

Last week Alpha Capital, a SPAC company that FJ Labs co-sponsored, went public. We rang the bell and it was beautiful.

Alpha Capital is a formed blank check company that intends to seek a business combination with a Latin American-focused technology business that will benefit from the founders’ experience growing and operating businesses in this industry throughout Latin America.

Today’s episode is special because Jeff Weinstein interviews Rahim Lakhani, the CFO of Alpha Capital. Most of you will remember Jeff from Episode 13: What’s the deal with SPACs. He is the resident SPAC boy at FJ Labs.

Rahim has an illustrious record of leading finance, strategy, and sales from Anheuser-Busch InBev to Offerpad, and now Alpha Capital.

 

Why Alpha Capital is going after LATAM?

  1. Fast adoption of technology in the region.
  2. There is a lack of capital injection.
  3. Lots of expertise in the market on the Alpha team.

“There’s high internet penetration but low economic penetration.”

Must-haves for launching a great SPAC

  1. You must find good partners. Partners include co-sponsors, law firms, bankers, and any service provider. There is uncertainty involved in SPACs and for that reason trust is important. So you must get to know your partners ahead of time.
  2. Make sure your vision and incentives align with your partners. A great SPAC is not a get-rich-quick scheme, it is a long-term game played by long-term people.
  3. Solve a real problem. It sounds like a simple task but it’s often forgotten.

Future of SPACs

There has been an increase in SPAC adoption because people like Chamat Palihapitiya have articulated the upsides well to other investors. Keep in mind that the market is rapidly evolving. Three key takeaways about the future of SPACs:

  1. There will be a market correction after two years. All the SPACs that succeed in consummating will become leaders in the market. These two years will help differentiate elite investors from mediocre ones.
  2. There will be a tiering of SPACs: tier 1, tier 2, tier 3 similar to banks.
  3. Tier 1 companies will want to pair up with tier 1 sponsors.

The obvious winners of successful SPACs are venture funds, service providers, and private companies. But the non-obvious winner is society because we will directly benefit from the increased speed of innovation, especially if companies with long-term cash flow, low probability of success, but high impact succeed with their products.

 

If you prefer, you can listen to the episode in the embedded podcast player.

In addition to the above Youtube video and embedded podcast player, you can also listen to the podcast on:

Kiting in Half Moon Bay is spectacular!

I have been in awe of the color of the water in Turks ever since I set eyes on it. And no place in Turks is more beautiful than the jaw dropping ridiculous beauty of Half Moon Bay. I had the pleasure of kiting there last Sunday morning, and it was majestic!

I am not sure why I love kiting so much, but there something about needing to focus to deal with two fundamental elements: air and water, that creates a meditative Zen-like state. Beyond kiting’s innate ability to create flow states, I love the sensation of gliding on the water and soaring through the air. I find it reminiscent of the sensations of skiing in powder, another of my favorite sports.

I felt compelled and inspired to make a video tribute to Sunday morning’s epic session.